Harvard Referencing Style Composition

Learning Connection—Learning Guideline

Referencing making use of the Harvard author-date



What is referencing?


In-text referencing


Why reference point?


Reference lists


What are the rules of referencing?


Scholar essay test


Taking care of your referrals


More referencing examples


Frequently asked questions

What is referring to?

Referencing, or perhaps citing, means acknowledging the sources of data and suggestions you have used in an assignment (eg. dissertation or report). This is a normal practice by university. It means whenever you compose an task that requires you to find and make use of information from all other sources, you are expected to reference these kinds of resources within your writing. Sources could contain books, record or paper articles, things from the internet, photos or layouts. Why reference point?

In academic assignments you need to read generally so you can determine the current thinking of a particular matter. You then utilize the ideas stated by other folks to reinforce the arguments you present in your assignment. The referencing inside your assignment shows two things:


the range of ideas and approaches to a topic that you have located and considered


your acknowledgement of where these ideas came from.

By making use of references properly, you will demonstrate breadth and quality of your research and avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is accepting as your individual someone else's suggestions and/or how they express their particular ideas. Most plagiarism is unintentional and writers are usually unaware that their writing could be regarded as plagiarism. Referring to is a single skill that helps writers steer clear of unintentional stealing subjects 1 .

Precisely what are the ‘rules' of referring to?

There are three main rules of referring to.


A reference should be included when you use somebody else's ideas or perhaps information.


A guide must be included when you:


paraphrase (express someone else's idea in your words)

summarise (express someone else's idea in a reduced form that you really need words)

quote (express someone else's thought in their specific words) or perhaps

copy (reproduce a diagram, graph or table from another person's work).

View the learning guideline ‘Avoiding Plagiarism' at

http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/students/Lguides/!18plagiarism. rtf

Authored by Learning Advisors in Learning Interconnection in cooperation with Librarians © University or college of Southern region Australia, The fall of 2004

site 1


Each research must appear in two places:

proven in the text of your project each time it is used (the in-text reference)


listed when in the citation at the end from the assignment. This listing provides full details so that your reader can find the reference.

Both the most common types of referring to systems utilized are:


author-date devices, such as the Harvard system, APA and MLA


statistical systems, including Chicago or perhaps Turabian, Vancouver and Footnote.

If your training course requires conditions particular program (for instance, psychology learners may use the APA referring to system, and some engineering college students may have to employ endnotes), you must follow the program specified for your course. Check any certain requirements inside your course handout materials or perhaps with your lecturer. Resources for a number of different systems are available through the Learning Connection website. 2 Handling your references

Whenever you discover a source of details that might be within an task, record all the details of the cause required for referring to before you begin to make notes. Fill out the details over a proforma (see below) and attach those to your remarks. This will help one to keep track of quite details you may need for referring to and will help you avoid stealing articles.



Book Subject:

Year of publication:



Place of publication:


Author (if...

References: looked at 5 Apr, 2004,


Escritt (2000) states that…

Escritt, S 2150, Art neuf, Phaidon, London, uk.

According to Cooper, Krever and Vann (2002) …

Cooper, GS, Krever, E & Vann, RJ 2002, Income taxation: commentary and


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